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What is DRAM?

Posted: 2023-09-26
By: dwirch
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Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) is a type of memory that is used primarily as the main memory in various computing devices, such as desktops, laptops, servers, and more. It functions as a temporary storage area where the CPU can read and modify data. One of its primary characteristics is that the stored data needs to be periodically refreshed to maintain the data's integrity.

Features of DRAM

  1. Volatile Memory: Data stored in DRAM is lost once the power supply is cut off.
  2. Dynamic Refreshing: DRAM cells need to be refreshed periodically, typically thousands of times per second, to maintain the stored data.
  3. Simplicity: Consists of one transistor and one capacitor per bit, making it more straightforward and cheaper per bit than its counterpart, SRAM (Static Random-Access Memory).
  4. Speed: Typically slower than SRAM but faster than storage devices like SSDs and HDDs.

Types of DRAM

  1. SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM): Works in synchronization with the computer's bus speed. This is an improvement over traditional DRAM, which operates asynchronously.
  2. DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous DRAM): Transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock cycle. Variants include DDR, DDR2, DDR3, DDR4, and the newer DDR5, each offering increased performance and decreased power consumption.
  3. RDRAM (Rambus DRAM): Developed by Rambus Inc., it was once positioned as a competitor to DDR but has since become less popular.
  4. EDO DRAM (Extended Data Out DRAM): An improved version of traditional DRAM, which keeps data available for a little longer, enhancing performance.
  5. FPM DRAM (Fast Page Mode DRAM): Allows quicker data access on the same page, leading to faster performance.


DRAM capacities have been continually growing. While early computers had DRAM in kilobytes (KB) or megabytes (MB), modern computers typically use DRAM in gigabytes (GB) or terabytes (TB). For instance, as of the last update in 2021, DDR4 modules were commonly available in capacities ranging from 4GB to 128GB per module.

Power Consumption

As technology has advanced, efforts have been made to reduce the power consumption of DRAM modules. Each subsequent generation of DRAM, especially the DDR series, generally consumes less power than its predecessor. This reduced power consumption leads to extended battery life in portable devices and reduced overall energy costs in larger systems.


Overclocking refers to running a component at a faster rate than it was designed for. DRAM modules, especially those from the DDR series, can often be overclocked to achieve better performance. However, this can lead to increased heat output and potential instability. Proper cooling and voltage adjustments are essential when overclocking.

Pros and Cons

As with everything in life, there upsides and downsides to using DRAM.


  1. Cost-Effective: Per bit, DRAM is typically cheaper than other types of RAM, like SRAM.
  2. High-Density: Allows for a significant amount of data storage in a compact space.
  3. Fast Access Times: Although not as fast as SRAM, DRAM offers rapid data access times suitable for main system memory.


  1. Volatile: Data is lost once power is cut off.
  2. Refresh Cycles: Requires periodic refreshing, which can slightly impact performance.
  3. Power Consumption: While improvements have been made, DRAM still consumes more power than non-volatile memory counterparts.

In conclusion, DRAM plays a vital role in the computing ecosystem. As technology advances, we can expect to see DRAM with even higher capacities, lower power consumption, and better performance. Whether you're a casual user or an enthusiast, understanding DRAM and its intricacies can help you make informed decisions for your computing needs.

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